Healthcare Resource Guide: China

 

China Statistics

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg

Summary
Market Entry

Main Competitors

Current Demand

Registration Process

Reimbursement
Barriers

Trade Events

FAQs

CS Contact

Best Prospects

Market Size

Capital: Beijing
Population:
1.38 billion
GDP:
US$ 11.218 trillion
Currency:
Renminbi
Language:
Mandarin Chinese

Summary

                              

China’s healthcare market featured continuous, robust growth and dynamic regulatory change in 2016.

2016 saw China’s medical device market reach USD 56 billion (<> RMB 370 billion), an increase of 20.1 percent in local currency when compared with that of 2015. Total sales of pharmaceutical and health products reached USD 277billion (<>RMB 1,839 billion) in 2016, growing by 10.4 year on year; retail sales numbered CNY 368billion (USD 55.5billion), a growth of 9.5 percent.

 

2016

population i

1.38bn

GDP (USD BN)

11,218

health expenditure (USD BN)

908.6

 

Medical Devices

Pharmaceutical & Health products

Market size (USD bn) ii

56

277

% health expenditure

6.1

30.5

% GDP

0.5

2.5

% world marketiii

5.7

10.4

     

% supplied by importsiv

33

18

Per capita (USD)

41

200

Source: Multiple sources; Ref. exchange rate: 6.63

Medical Device Market

The medical device market is one of the fastest growing market sectors in China, having maintained double-digit growth for over a decade. Per China Customs stats in 2016, China’s exports of medical devices decreased by 3.14% to USD 20.50 billion, while its imports increased by 6.28% to USD 18.40 billion. The U.S. remains the largest supplier by country, and its export value to China totaled USD 2.9billion for the 1st half of 2016, a year-on-year increase of 12.1%.

Local suppliers mainly compete in low-end consumables, artificial teeth, hearing aids, Mechano-therapy apparatus, wheel chairs, etc. Nevertheless, high-end consumables such as diagnostic imaging and endoscopy will maintain the need for import products.

Pharmaceutical & Health Products

The import and export of pharmaceutical and health products totaled USD 103.4 billion in 2016, slightly up by 0.73 % compared to the total in 2015, with exports accounting for about USD 55.4 billion and imports approximately USD 48 billion. Ignoring local currency depreciation, China’s imports and exports of pharmaceutical and health products grew by 4.41% and 10.42% respectively in terms of RMB in 2016.

Medical reform on market entry requirements and payment systems combined with regulatory changes on pharmaceutical prices will together continuously and decisively shape commercial opportunities. The generic drugs business confronts increasing competition from local manufacturers. Nevertheless, as 10% of the global market and an increasingly prioritized sector in national strategy, China’s healthcare market remains at our ‘recommended’ level.

Healthcare Policy Issues

The healthcare market in China is one of the most promising for U.S. exports in the long-term given its size and growth potential. Rising per capita income, an aging population, greater access to healthcare and regulatory reform are key drivers that will enhance the appeal of China's market to U.S. companies. The Chinese government is focused on healthcare as one of its priority sectors to cultivate national champions and to promote indigenous innovation and R&D investment. Common market access barriers include regulatory approval delays, lack of meaningful IP protection and enforcement, pricing and reimbursement controls, and procurement preferences that increasingly advantage domestic companies over foreign multinationals. Encouragingly, this year the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) proposed significant reforms related to requirements for conducting multi-regional clinical trials, improving intellectual property protections, and accelerating the review and approval of new drug and medical device applications. If implemented, such reforms would meaningfully improve the regulatory environment for U.S. firms and promote access to innovative treatments for Chinese patients.

Market Entry

China’s rapidly changing regulatory environment will likely have a short-term negative impact on the overall market. The China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) is the government body responsible for regulating medical devices by testing, evaluating, and giving administrative approval for medical devices to be sold in the Chinese market.

Regulations and Standards

In March 2015, the CFDA introduced new fee requirements for Class III medical devices and imported Class II medical devices. The fees are as follows: USD 32,446 (CNY 210, 900) for initial registration of a Class II imported medical device, USD 47,508 (CNY 308,800) for initial registration of a Class III imported medical device, and USD 6,277 (CNY 40,800) for registration renewals (every five years). These fees do not include costs for clinical trials, in-country representation, and translation. The CFDA issued a number of rules first in 2015 and then at the beginning of 2016, including “Rules for the Classification of Medical Devices,” “Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Use Quality of Medical Devices,” “Naming Rules for the Generic Names of Medical Devices,” and “Good Clinical Practices for Medical Devices.”

From May 11 – 12, 2017, China’s Food and Drug Administration issued four draft circulars aimed at expediting reviews of drugs and devices, expanding the infrastructure for clinical trials, improving enforcement actions, and establishing a patent-linkage system with improved intellectual property protections. Covington & Burling, a law firm, notes that the new circulars will shorten the gap between China and Western countries regarding regulatory oversight of drugs and medical devices. The proposed policies will “substantially speed up the marketing approvals of imported and domestic drugs or medical devices, and provide some meaningful IP and data protection from a regulatory perspective”. (https://www.bna.com/china-makes-strides-n73014451251/)

Set Up a Representative Office

A great number of foreign companies have elected to set up a representative office to manage product registration, promotion, marketing, training, and support while at the same time appointing regional or local distributors for sales, actual operations, logistics, and receivables with hospitals.

Set Up Your Own Trading Company

Models for establishing your own trading company do exist. For example, if you establish a FICE (Foreign Invested Commercial Enterprise), it is not necessary to use a local partner. A FICE has the right to distribute in China as well as to export to foreign markets.

Designate Distributors

China is a big market, varying greatly from one region to another. China is normally divided into three major markets: north, south, and east. However, they can be further divided into the northeast and mid-west markets. Depending on the types of products, U.S. companies can enter the Chinese market through regional distributors that can broadly cover secondary markets. However, U.S. firms usually rely on local Tier II or Tier III distributors for sales in each locality.

Direct contact with the right local distributors may give foreign companies greater control and better representation. These local distributors are also highly product or department-oriented. Selecting the right distributor can be an important, key success factor. Brand owners and manufacturers are advised to support distributors on training and marketing etc. in order to maintain competitiveness in the market.

Participate in Technical Seminars or Exhibit at Trade Shows

Participating in shows/events, ideally with an agent or distributor, offers new-to-market companies greater exposure. This provides networking opportunities with key contacts in their specialized field and provides direction for future market expansion.

Cross-border e-commerce

Healthcare products such as nutritional supplements can still come into Chinese market through cross-border e-commerce without registration and clinical trials. However, policy stability is uncertain and companies are advised to register their products with CFDA as needed.

Current Market Trends

China remains one of the world’s largest and most dynamic markets for the health industry. The strength of the Chinese health market is a result of sustained demographic change, increasing urbanization, and lifestyle change. By 2020, China’s aging population is expected to count 176 million over the age of 65 (EIU 2015). This will be compounded by increased concentration in urban areas, putting an even bigger strain on healthcare resources. Also undeniable is the effect of pollution and poor dietary habits on the increase in chronic illnesses – China, with its 100 million diabetics, is the “diabetes capital of the world” (Prnewswire March 2017).

In order to combat the deteriorating health of its citizens, the Chinese government announced a new 5 year plan in 2015, with the goal of “Healthy China 2020”. This plan called for an increase in medical infrastructure, specifically private hospitals, with the goal of a 30% increase in beds at public hospitals and a 100% increase in beds in private hospitals. “Healthy China 2020” also vastly expanded insurance coverage (TowersWatson July 2015).

Consequently, fiscal spending on healthcare surged by 10% in 2016 to 1.24 trillion yuan, about USD $185 billion (Ministry of Finance Feb 2017). Likewise, the total number of hospitals rose to 28,471 in 2016 with 2,059 new private hospitals added between September 2015-2016 (BMO Jan 2017). Notably, 95% of Chinese are now insured (NortonRose May 2015). A McKinsey principal projects China’s healthcare spending to reach $1 trillion in 2020 (LinkedIn May 2016).

Although there are caveats, foreign healthcare companies will likely benefit from a larger insurance net, better infrastructure, and new government-supported innovation (LinkedIn May 2016). Additionally, companies will have a better regulatory picture.

Of China’s USD $663 billion total spent on healthcare in 2016 (BMI 2017), $18.8 billion was spent on medical devices (Emergogroup 2017). Even though China is the world’s second largest medical device market, there is still huge room for improvement, as the trends discussed earlier (urbanization, rise in chronic disease, etc.) continue to drive insatiable demand. Recently, many foreign companies have moved to China in order to qualify for new government incentives for domestically produced devices (NortonRose March 2016).

As for pharmaceuticals, China is second only to the US with USD $116.7 billion worth of sales in 2016 (FT April 2017). The CEO of Novartis projects that this mark could stretch to USD $300 billion in 2020 (Bloomberg April 2017). However, it is important to note new drug regulations. China will limit the number of invoices between drug manufacturers and hospitals to two, eliminating thousands of local intermediaries. Although this will help foreign companies consolidate supply chains, there is still the risk of corruption as several foreign companies have been fined for bribery (FT Feb 2017). More importantly, China released a new list of reimbursable drugs for the first time in eight years, adding 339 new drugs to a list of 2,535 foreign and domestic medicines. Placement on this list allows a drug to be covered by state insurance, thereby making it crucially available to the mass market. This comes at a heavy cost, as drug companies are forced to slash prices in order to qualify for the list – an integral part of China’s reform is to make drugs more affordable. Lastly, there is hope for future deregulation that will greatly hasten overseas drug approval in China and make launch times on par with that of most advanced economies (FT Feb 2017).

In sum, healthcare system reform, an increasing urban and aging population, the epidemic of chronic illness, new regulation and more public investment in expanding healthcare coverage continue to drive excellent Chinese market growth.

Main Competitors

Depending on specific product type, the main competitors include EU countries - specifically Germany - and Japan. Current government policy supports and encourages medical device innovation inside China. Some domestic manufacturers such as Shenzhen Mindray, Edan Instrument, and Shandong Shinva now create high-quality products and are beginning to compete against foreign suppliers in medium- to high-level technology niches.

Current Demand

As mentioned above, Chinese market demand is driven by a rapidly aging and changing demographic. Therefore, China has a huge and growing need for the likes of chronic disease treatments and elderly care. Yet, China’s hospitals are still underfunded and overcrowded. Currently, China’s healthcare system revolves around massive tier three hospitals that take in tens of thousands of patients annually from the surrounding areas. Despite having only 30% of the population, urban hospitals receive 70% of medical resources (CA Cancer Journal Jan 2016). In order to improve rural access to healthcare, China has implemented reforms in its “Healthy China 2020” 5 year plan which may offer opportunities for foreign investment in rural areas. More importantly, China has finally embraced private hospitals with Premier Li Keqiang actively encouraging support of high-quality private hospitals to meet demand and making overtures to foreign investment and expertise (State Council May 2017). The South China Morning Post quotes investment professionals: “Private hospitals are set to attract large amounts of capital in the coming decade” (SCMP Jan 2017).

Chinese hospitals consider Western products to be of superior quality as well as the most technologically advanced. The high end medical devices market is dominated by the likes of Siemens, GE Healthcare, and Philips Healthcare who still see further opportunity in the Chinese market (Seeking Alpha Jan 2017). It is telling that Shanghai, one of China’s most economically developed cities, imported 100% of its CT and MRI equipment, but Shaanxi, a much poorer province, only imported 71% of its CTs and 56% of MRIs (BMI Jan 2017). However, domestic companies are becoming more competitive, especially in the wake of the Chinese government’s “Made in China 2025” initiative to improve its domestic industry’s efficiency, product quality, and brand reputation.

Regarding chronic illness, China had approximately 4.3 million new cases of cancer in 2015 according to the CA Cancer Journal. The Journal also notes that China accounts for 22% of the world’s new cancer cases and 27% of cancer deaths; pollution and smoking habits have made lung cancer ubiquitous. There is also significant potential in the diabetes market. Only half of Chinese diabetics are diagnosed and only 15% of this subpopulation actually receives treatment – with more coverage, China’s diabetes treatment industry could grow by 10% annually to 2020. Additionally, China has around 69 million people over the age of 50 who suffer from osteoporosis. Combine this with rapid aging and urbanization with its congestion and vehicular traffic to get an orthopedics market projected to be USD $4.1 billion in 2020. Similarly, elderly care is primed to take-off with the State Council calling it a “Sunrise industry” and advocating for reducing entry thresholds and increasing foreign investment.

Lastly, China’s medical information and technology (ICT) market is projected to be worth USD $6.5 billion by 2020 as China continues to push innovation, big data, and efficiency.

Best Prospects Include:

  • Chronic disease drugs
  • Oncology
  • Orthopedics
  • In vitro diagnostic equipment and reagents: clinical and diagnostic analysis equipment, diagnostic reagents, medical test and basic equipment instruments, and point of care testing (POCT).
  • Implantable and intervention materials and artificial organs: Interventional materials, implantable artificial organs, contact artificial organs, stent, implantable materials, and artificial organ assisting equipment.
  • Therapeutic products: Tri-dimensional ultrasonic-focused therapeutic systems, body rotary gamma knife, simulator, linear accelerator, laser diagnostic and surgical equipment, nuclide treatment equipment, physical and rehabilitation equipment.
  • Medical diagnostic and imaging equipment: black & white and colored supersonic diagnostic units, sleeping monitor, digital X-ray system, MRI, CT, DR, and ultrasound equipment.
  • Surgical and emergency appliances: anesthesia ventilation systems and components: high frequency surgical equipment, high frequency and voltage generators.
  • Medical equipment parts and accessories.
  • Biotechnology : new drug research and development
  • Hospital management and consultation; professional training to medical staffs.

 

Registration Process

All imported drugs and medical devices require registration or notification filing process of the CFDA before being sold or distributed in the Chinese market. In China, medical devices are divided into three classes depending on levels of risks similar to, but different and stricter than that of the USFDA. According to Order 650, all Class II and III devices are required to be registered with the CFDA while Class I products are required to be notified with the CFDA. Clinical trials are required for Class III and some Class II medical devices unless they are on the CFDA’s exemption directory for clinical trials.

Generally speaking, the process is complex and time consuming. Depending on the product class, it can take one to three years after submission of all necessary documents and respective samples for testing. U.S. companies are encouraged to register their products through their authorized distributors if they do not have a representative office or subsidiary in China. The CFDA has a comprehensive system for medical device registration and inspection, including product testing and factory audits. A company is required to provide a testing report for the product conducted by a Chinese lab. The company is also required to submit a product standard according to China’s “Product Regulation Standard,” for the CFDA’s record. In addition to the service fee charged by a local company for translation and product standard compilation, the cost varies for registering a product with the CFDA. This final cost also includes the prices of product testing in an authorized Chinese lab, the technical evaluation at the CFDA’s Medical Evaluation Center, and final administrative approval by the CFDA.

From April 1, 2017, the Ministry of Finance and National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) have cleaned up and regulated 41 types of administrative and institutional fees that are set up by the central government. 23 types of fees will no longer be charged, such as the testing fee - including the drug testing fee and testing fee for medical devices and products.

In March 2017, China’s CFDA announced it would allow foreign companies to use multi-regional clinical trial data to support new drug applications in China as long as the trial design fits China’s technical guidelines. This means that companies will no longer need to conduct a second, local trial in China after running their global trials.

Reimbursement

The medical reimbursement system in China is also a very complicated one and yet, the relatively modest level of health insurance cover for most residents makes costly treatments unaffordable. The medical insurance program is included as a part of a social security insurance, often dubbed as “five insurances plus one house funding.” However, patients can only get partially or fully reimbursed if their prescriptions or procedures are pre-included in a “medical insurance catalog,” which often only covers basic needs. Each province gets to decide what the catalog looks like for its local patients, however, because public hospitals are under increasing financial pressures to control their expenditure, they will usually stock and prescript according to the list, in order to avoid creating a heavy burden on the social welfare net. So generally speaking, foreign products are often barred from getting into the medical insurance catalog due to local protectionism and having a higher price point. If a patient is in acute need of a high-quality anti-biotic that is not included in the catalog, the patient needs to pay out-of-pocket money. Consequently, the catalogue discourages physicians from using expensive imported drugs, especially on patients with chronic diseases who need long-term medication. Furthermore, it leads to many problems in hospitals, including bribery. Lastly, many provinces have halted the process of updating the catalog for years, resulting in fewer innovative drugs able to serve the increasing needs of the Chinese public.

Barriers

Generally speaking, the healthcare sector is heavily regulated in China, both on national and local levels. Barriers exist in the forms of an uncertain regulatory environment and extensive delays in registration and re-registration of products. Additionally, price control, tender, and bar code systems also play a role in delaying a company’s entry into the Chinese medical market.

Although healthcare sector reform has created new opportunities, it has not completely opened the market to foreign companies. Despite the enormity of the Chinese market, U.S. companies thinking about entering face significant challenges. Barriers include onerous pricing and reimbursement policies on pharmaceuticals and medical devices, inadequate intellectual property protection, and bureaucratic delays in registering products for sale. Numerous restrictions and an ever-changing regulatory environment add to the challenges faced by U.S. companies trying to enter the healthcare market in China.

Meanwhile, the Chinese government has issued new policies giving more support to domestic suppliers by encouraging innovation inside China. Domestic manufacturers whose products are defined by the CFDA as innovative are expected to get expedited approval in product registration, allowing them more lead time to enter the market and to complete against foreign suppliers in China.

Long waiting time at CFDA

The CFDA’s drug registration process is complex and time-consuming because companies must navigate an intricate, multi-layered network of healthcare organizations, resulting in multiple disparities. Depending on the product class, it can take one to three years after submission of all necessary documents and respective samples for testing. For new drugs that have received clinical trials in its original country, the companies are required to conduct separate local clinical trials by approved laboratories in China. It is only after the completion of Phase 1 clinical trials that foreign innovative drugs can apply for Phase 1 clinical trial in China. (please see new regulation update http://www.biopharmadive.com/news/china-drug-trials-manufacturing-generics-cfda/439487/) To a certain extent, making clinical trial institutions go through the approval system limits the effective use of clinical resources. Disparities in qualifications to conduct clinical trials between large hospitals result in doctors’ lack of motivation to take part in clinical trials. China is still at the research stage, whereas some developed countries have policies that encourage innovation such as clinical data protection, patent linkage, and patent compensation. On the medical device side, China has issued two batches of Class II Medical Device Clinical Trial Exemption Catalogues and Class III Medical Device Clinical Trial Exemption Catalogues.

Uneven Level-Playing Field/Hospital Procurement

Local protectionism is not news. The favoritism towards local companies is often demonstrated from the hospital procurement process. For instance, there is not much differentiation between the original brand-name drug and the generic drug when it comes to bidding classification. When evaluating the adopting of a drug, there is an inclination to always go with the lowest-priced bidder, regardless of its effectiveness in patient studies.

Charging Code

Even for novel drugs or tests that have existed for a long time or have been adopted for several decades in foreign countries, there are many ways to be blocked in the Chinese market. Even with proper registration and licensing, drugs and procedures need charging codes in order to be adopted by doctors and performed in public hospitals. Without them, there is simply no way to start. The lack of clinical data and bedside experiences prevent doctors from adopting new drugs and procedures, therefore many new drugs are only used in certain hospitals.

An individual company needs to go through an approval application process through six different entities as follows - 1. hospital head of the department 2. hospital pricing chief 3. provincial pricing bureau 4. provincial health bureau 5. back to provincial pricing bureau, 6. Provincial Development Reform Commission (DRC) to grant the charging code. The company must also get a careful cost evaluation by all the authorities mentioned above to get a charging code. There is much red tape during this process and there is no official system to track a drug’s progress; companies just have to wait. On the national level, there is no new charging code that has been assigned since 2012. As a result, many companies have started to push products into hospitals by getting charging codes on the provincial level. Once a company gets a charging code from the provincial DRC, the charging code can be used in any public hospitals within that DRC’s jurisdiction.

 

Trade Events

MEDTEC China 2017

September 20-22, 2017 • Shanghai, China • www.medtecchina.com

Healthcare Expo China West 2017

September 22-24, 2017 • Chengdu, China healthcareexpo.cn

Dentech China 2017

October 25-28, 2017 • Shanghai, China www.dentech.com.cn/en

China International Medical Equipment Fair (CMEF) 2017- Autumn

October 29-November 1, 2017 • Kunming, China • en.cmef.com.cn

The 20th China Northeast International Dental Equipment & Affiliated Facilities Exhibition and Symposium on Oral Health

March 16-19, 2018 • Shenyang, China • http://kq.bfexpo.com.cn/

Dental South China 2018

April, 2018 • Guangzhou, China• www.dentalsouthchina.com/

China International Medical Equipment Fair (CMEF) 2018 - Spring

April, 2018 • Shanghai, China • en.cmef.com.cn

2018 China Hospital Construction Conference

May 19-21, 2018, Wuhan, China www.chccchina.com

FAQs

How do I protect my intellectual property rights in China?

Generally speaking, China’s trademark registration is fairly inexpensive and straightforward. To show its commitment to WTO pledges, local judges are encouraged to promote rule of law and act against infringements on behalf of the foreign litigants. But, remember that China’s system is ‘first to register’ rather than ‘first to market’. So, if you are seriously looking at this market, registering BEFORE you enter China can save a lot of time, money and frustration should you face infringement at a later stage. The worst case scenario is to have a competitor or other local firms register your brand name in the early stages of your market entry, forcing you to fight an uphill battle for your name. To learn more about protecting your trademark in China, please visit: http://beijing.usembassy-china.org.cn/iprtrade.html

 

Where do I start if I want to enter into Chinese market?

All imported drugs, including nutritional supplements, and medical devices require registration or notification filing process of the CFDA before being sold or distributed in the Chinese market. In China, medical devices are divided into three classes depending on levels of risks similar to, but different and stricter than that of the USFDA. According to Order 650, all Class II and III devices are required to be registered with the CFDA while Class I products are required to be notified with the CFDA.

Imported Health Food (including nutritional supplements, dietary supplements, and health food) is only allowed to be sold in China after obtaining the CFDA Imported Health Food Approval Certificate.

It is recommended that the exporting company to find a reputable and legally registered Chinese agent if it does not have its own Permanent Representative in China. The registration process for drugs, health food, and medical devices differ from each other, but share some similarities as well.

The exporting company need to prepare all required documentation and send samples of the product to CFDA designated testing institutions for product safety testing and obtain the testing report from the testing institutions before submitting the registration application to CFDA. For drugs and medical devices, clinical trials may be required. If the products pass the clinical trials, the company can submit the application package to CFDA. CFDA will conduct administrative and technical reviews of the application. Upon evaluation, if qualified, CFDA will issue a “Certificate” with which the company can legally sell its products in China. The company can find distributors who are authorized to sell the products in China (Authorization shall be listed in their business license scope, e.g. health food, drug or/and medical devices).

How do I find a reliable distributor?

U.S. companies are advised to do thorough due diligence on its potential partner in China, by internet research, conference calls, and especially in person visits etc., in order to ensure the potential partner is a reputable and legally registered entity in China. In addition, U.S. companies can request references of other companies that are doing or have done businesses with the potential Chinese partner as reference checks. The U.S. Commercial Service offers matchmaking services (GKS) to help U.S. companies look for local distributors. Other services like the International Company Profile will assist U.S. companies to do detailed background check such as financial status, and assist U.S. companies in their decision making process.

U.S. Commercial Service Contact Information

 

Contact—Beijing

Ming Yang

Senior Commercial Specialist

ming.yang@trade.gov

86-10-8531-4006

Huiling Shi

Senior Commercial Specialist

Huiling.shi@trade.gov

86-10-8531-3419

Contact—Shanghai

Xiaoli Pan

Senior Commercial Specialist

xiaoli.pan@trade.gov

86-21-6279-8750

Contact—Guangzhou

Angela Han

Senior Commercial Specialist

angela.han@trade.gov

86-20-3814-5543

Contact—Chengdu

Mini Tian

Senior Commercial Specialist

mini.tian@trade.gov

86-28-8558-3992 x6536

Contact—Shenyang

Yang Liu

Senior Commercial Specialist

yang.liu@trade.gov

86-24-2322-1198 x8143

Contact – Wuhan

Catherine Le

Senior Commercial Specialist

Catherine.le@trade.gov

86-27-8555-7791 X2811

Best Prospects

  • Oncology
  • Biotechnology
  • Hospital management

Market Size

Healthcare spending (including investment)

USD 635 Billion (6.63 exchange rate)

... as percent of GDP

5.8%

... of which spent on pharmaceuticals/consumables

USD $300 Billion on pharmaceuticals

Hospitals, Procedures, Healthcare Professionals

Number of hospitals*

29,000

…Public

13,000

…Private

16,000

Number of hospital beds

7,470,000

... available beds per capita

5.11 per 1,000 people (2015)

...of which in general hospitals

5,750,000

...of which in specialized clinics and rehabilitation centers

1,720,000

Physicians

3,170,000 (certified physicians and associate physicians)

...of which pediatricians

118,000

 

Population

1,382,710,000

Life expectancy men/women

79.43/73.64

...projection, 2030

20.2%

...caused by cardiovascular disease

3,500,000

...caused by cancer

2,800,000

Dentists

136,000

Demographics


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