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Chapter 5: Trade Regulations. Customs and Standards

Import Tariffs

Germany Import Turnover Tax

Goods imported from non-EU states are subject to an import turnover tax (Einfuhrumsatzsteuer). The import turnover tax rate equals the VAT (value-added tax) rates of 19 percent levied on domestic products (or 7 percent for some product categories), and has to be paid to the customs authority. The assessment base for the import turnover tax is the so-called customs value.

The import turnover tax on goods imported from non-EU states can be deducted as a so-called input tax (Vorsteuer). As a prerequisite, the company must have the necessary import documents with customs proof of payment (import declaration). It is important to collect and present all invoices as originals in order to deduct any VAT charges from one's own tax liability or to get reimbursed by the German Ministry of Finance, if eligible.

EU Regulations

The Integrated Tariff of the Community, referred to as TARIC (Tarif Intégré de la Communauté), is designed to show the various rules which apply to specific products being imported into the customs territory of the EU or, in some cases, exported from it. To determine if a license is required for a particular product, check the TARIC.

The TARIC can be searched by country of origin, Harmonized System (HS) Code, and product description on the interactive website of the Directorate-General for Taxation and the Customs Union. The online TARIC is updated daily.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/

Trade Barriers

Germany's regulations and bureaucratic procedures can be a difficult hurdle for companies wishing to enter the market and require close attention by U.S. exporters. Complex safety standards, not normally discriminatory but sometimes zealously applied, complicate access to the market for many U.S. products. U.S. suppliers are well advised to do their homework thoroughly and make sure they know precisely which standards apply to their product and that they obtain timely testing and certification.

For information on existing trade barriers, please see the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, published by USTR and available through the following website: www.ustr.gov/sites/default/files/2013%20NTE%20European%20Union%20Final.pdf

Information on agricultural trade barriers can be found at the following website:

To report existing or new trade barriers and get assistance in removing them, contact either the Trade Compliance Center at www.trade.gov/tcc or the U.S. Mission to the European Union at http://export.gov/europeanunion/

Import Requirements and Documentation

  • The TARIC (Tarif Intégré de la Communauté), described above, is available to help determine if a license is required for a particular product.

Many EU member states maintain their own list of goods subject to import licensing.
For example, Germany's "Import List" (Einfuhrliste) includes goods for which licenses are required, their code numbers, any applicable restrictions, and the agency that will issue the relevant license. The Import List also indicates whether the license is required under German or EU law.

For information relevant to member state import licenses, please consult the relevant member state Country Commercial Guide: EU Member States' Country Commercial Guides or conduct a search on the Commerce Department’s Market Research Library, available from: www.export.gov/mrktresearch/index.asp.

Import Documentation

The Single Administrative Document

The official model for written declarations to customs is the Single Administrative Document (SAD). Goods brought into the EU customs territory are, from the time of their entry, subject to customs supervision until customs formalities are completed. Goods are covered by a Summary Declaration which is filed once the items have been presented to customs officials. The customs authorities may, however, allow a period for filing the Declaration which cannot be extended beyond the first working day following the day on which the goods are presented to customs.

The Summary Declaration is filed by:

  • the person who brought the goods into the customs territory of the Community or by any person who assumes responsibility for carriage of the goods following such entry; or
  • the person in whose name the person referred to above acted.

The Summary Declaration can be made on a form provided by the customs authorities. However, customs authorities may also allow the use of any commercial or official document that contains the specific information required to identify the goods. The SAD serves as the EU importer's declaration. It encompasses both customs duties and VAT and is valid in all EU member states. The declaration is made by whoever is clearing the goods, normally the importer of record or his/her agent.

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries including Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein also use the SAD. Information on import/export forms is contained in Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2454/93, which lays down provisions for the implementation of the Community Customs Code (Articles 205 through 221). Articles 222 through 224 provide for computerized customs declarations and Articles 225 through 229 provide for oral declarations.

More information on the SAD can be found at:

Regulation (EC) No 450/2008 laying down the Community Customs Code (so-called the “Modernized Customs Code”) aimed at the adaptation of customs legislation and at introducing the electronic environment for customs and trade. This Regulation entered into force on June 24, 2008 and was due to be applicable once its implementing provisions were in force by June 2013. However, the Modernized Customs Code was recast as a Union Customs Code (UCC) before it became applicable. The Union Customs Code (UCC) Regulation entered into force in October 2013 and repealed the MCC Regulation; its substantive provisions will apply only on May 1st 2016. Until this time, the Community Customs Code and its implementing provisions continue to apply.


Imported goods must be accompanied by a customs declaration, which has to be submitted in writing, and an invoice in duplicate. Normally the German importer files this declaration. The commercial invoice must show the country of purchase and the country of origin of the goods. The invoice should contain:

  • (Company) and address of seller and buyer
  • Place and date of issue
  • Number, kind of packages
  • Precise description of articles
  • Volume or quantity in normal commercial units
  • Invoice price (in invoice currency)
  • Terms of delivery and
  • Payment.

In addition, a certificate of origin may be required in some cases.
Import duties and taxes are subject to change and companies are well advised to verify the correct tariff level shortly before carrying out any export transaction. For further information, including current customs tariffs, please visit:


The summary declaration is to be lodged by:

  • the person who brought the goods into the customs territory of the Community or by any person who assumes responsibility for carriage of the goods following such entry; or
  • the person in whose name the person referred to above acted.

Non-EU goods presented to customs must be assigned a customs-approved treatment or use authorized for such non-Community goods. Where goods are covered by a summary declaration, the formalities for them to be assigned a customs-approved treatment or use must be carried out:

  • 45 days from the date on which the summary declaration is lodged in the case of goods carried by sea;
  • 20 days from the date on which the summary declaration is lodged in the case of goods carried other than by sea.
    Where circumstances so warrant, the customs authorities may set a shorter period or authorize an extension of the period.

The Modernized Customs Code (MCC) of the European Union entered into force on 24 June 2008. The MCC replaced Regulation 2913/92 and simplifies various procedures such as introducing a paperless environment, centralized clearance and more.  Check the EU’s Customs website for updates: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/procedural_aspects/general/


Since July 1, 2009, all companies established outside of the EU are required to have an Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number if they wish to lodge a customs declaration or an Entry/Exit Summary declaration. All U.S. companies should use this number for their customs clearances. If a U.S. company wishes to apply for AEO status or apply for simplifications in customs procedures within the EU, it must first obtain an EORI number. Companies should request an EORI number from the authorities of the first EU member state to which they export. Once a company has received an EORI number, it can use it for exports to any of the 28 EU member states. There is no single format for the EORI number.

More information about the EORI number can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/dds2/eos/eori_home.jsp?Lang=en

U.S. - EU Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA)

Since 1997, the U.S. and the EU have had an agreement on customs cooperation and mutual assistance in customs matters. For additional information, please see:

In 2012, the U.S. and the EU signed a new Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) aimed at matching procedures to associate one another’s customs identification numbers. The MCC introduced the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) program (known as the “security amendment”). This is similar to the U.S.’ voluntary Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) program in which participants receive certification as a “trusted” trader. AEO certification issued by a national customs authority is recognized by all member state’s customs agencies. An AEO is entitled to two different types of authorization: “customs simplification” or “security and safety.” The former allows for an AEO to benefit from simplifications related to customs legislation, while the latter allows for facilitation through security and safety procedures. Shipping to a trader with AEO status could facilitate an exporter’s trade as its benefits include expedited processing of shipments, reduced theft/losses, reduced data requirements, lower inspection costs and enhanced loyalty and recognition.

The U.S. and the EU recognize each other’s security certified operators and will take the respective membership status of certified trusted traders favorably into account to the extent possible. The favorable treatment provided by mutual recognition will result in lower costs, simplified procedures and greater predictability for transatlantic business activities. The newly signed arrangement officially recognizes the compatibility of AEO and C-TPAT programs, thereby facilitating faster and more secure trade between U.S. and EU operators. The agreement is being implemented in two phases. The first commenced in July 2012 with the U.S. customs authorities placing shipments coming from EU AEO members into a lower risk category. The second phase took place in early 2013, with the EU re-classifying shipments coming from C-TPAT members into a lower risk category. The U.S. customs identification numbers (MID) are therefore recognized by customs authorities in the EU, as per Implementing Regulation 58/2013 (which amends EU Regulation 2454/93 cited above):

Additional information on the MRA can be found at:


EU battery rules changed in September 2006 following the publication of the Directive on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators (Directive 2006/66). This Directive replaces the original Battery Directive of 1991 (Directive 91/157). The 2006 Directive applies to all batteries and accumulators placed on the EU market including automotive, industrial and portable batteries. It aims to protect the environment by restricting the sale of batteries and accumulators that contain mercury or cadmium (with an exemption for emergency and alarm systems, medical equipment and cordless power tools) and by promoting a high level of collection and recycling. It places the responsibility on producers to finance the costs associated with the collection, treatment, and recycling of used batteries and accumulators. The Directive also includes provisions on the labeling of batteries and their removability from equipment. In 2012, the European Commission published a FAQ document to assist interested parties in interpreting its provisions. For more information, see our market research report: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4062262.pdf


REACH, "Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals”, is the system for controlling chemicals in the EU which came into force in 2007 (Regulation 1907/2006). Virtually every industrial sector, from automobiles to textiles, is affected by this policy. REACH requires chemicals produced or imported into the EU in volumes above 1 metric ton per year to be registered with a central database handled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Information on a chemical’s properties, its uses and safe ways of handling are part of the registration process. The next registration deadline is May 31, 2018. U.S. companies without a presence in Europe cannot register directly and must have their chemicals registered through their importer or EU-based ‘Only Representative of non-EU manufacturer’. A list of Only Representatives (ORs) can be found on the website of the U.S. Mission to the EU: http://export.gov/europeanunion/reachclp/index.asp

U.S. companies exporting chemical products to the European Union must update their Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) to be REACH compliant. For more information, see the guidance on the compilation of safety data sheets: http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/17235/sds_en.pdf

U.S. exporters to the EU should carefully consider the REACH ‘Candidate List’ of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs) and the ‘Authorization List’. Substances on the Candidate List are subject to communication requirements prior to their export to the EU. Companies seeking to export products containing substances on the ‘Authorization List’ will require an authorization. The Candidate List can be found at: http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/candidate-list-table.

The Authorization List is available at http://echa.europa.eu/addressing-chemicals-of-concern/authorisation/recommendation-for-inclusion-in-the-authorisation-list/authorisation-list

WEEE Directive

EU rules on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), while not requiring specific customs or import paperwork, may entail a financial obligation for U.S. exporters. The Directive requires U.S. exporters to register relevant products with a national WEEE authority or arrange for this to be done by a local partner. The WEEE Directive was revised on July 4, 2012 and the scope of products covered was expanded to include all electrical and electronic equipment. This revised scope will apply from August 14, 2018 with a phase-in period that has already begun. U.S. exporters seeking more information on the WEEE Directive should visit: http://export.gov/europeanunion/weeerohs/index.asp


The ROHS Directive imposes restrictions on the use of certain chemicals in electrical and electronic equipment. It does not require specific customs or import paperwork however, manufacturers must self-certify that their products are compliant. The Directive was revised in 2011 and entered into force on January 2, 2013. One important change with immediate effect is that RoHS is now a CE Marking Directive. The revised Directive expands the scope of products covered during a transition period which ends on July 22, 2019. Once this transition period ends, the Directive will apply to medical devices, monitoring and control equipment in addition to all other electrical and electronic equipment. U.S. exporters seeking more information on the RoHS Directive should visit: http://export.gov/europeanunion/weeerohs/index.asp

Cosmetics Regulation

On November 30, 2009, the EU adopted a new regulation on cosmetic products which has applied since July 11, 2013. The law introduces an EU-wide system for the notification of cosmetic products and a requirement that companies without a physical presence in the EU appoint an EU-based responsible person.

In addition, on March 11, 2013, the EU imposed a ban on the placement on the market of cosmetics products that contain ingredients that have been subject to animal testing. This ban does not apply retroactively but does capture new ingredients. Of note, in March 2013, the Commission published a Communication stating that this ban would not apply to ingredients where safety data was obtained from testing required under other EU legislation that did not have a cosmetic purpose. For more information on animal testing, see: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/sectors/cosmetics/animal-testing

For more general information, see:

Agricultural Documentation

Phytosanitary Certificates: Phytosanitary certificates are required for most fresh fruits, vegetables, and other plant materials.

Sanitary Certificates: For commodities composed of animal products or by-products, EU countries require that shipments be accompanied by a certificate issued by the competent authority of the exporting country. This applies regardless of whether the product is for human consumption, for pharmaceutical use, or strictly for non-human use (e.g., veterinary biologicals, animal feeds, fertilizers, research). The vast majority of these certificates are uniform throughout the EU, but the harmonization process is not complete. During this transition period, certain member state import requirements continue to apply. In addition to the legally required EU health certificates, a number of other certificates are used in international trade. These certificates, which may also be harmonized in EU legislation, certify origin for customs purposes and certain quality attributes. Up-to-date information on harmonized import requirements can be found at the following website:

Sanitary Certificates (Fisheries)

In April 2006, the European Union declared the U.S. seafood inspection system as equivalent to the European one. Consequently, a specific public health certificate must accompany U.S. seafood shipments. The U.S. fishery product sanitary certificate is a combination of Commission Decision 2006/199/EC for the public health attestation and of Regulation 1012/2012 for the general template and animal health attestation. Unlike for fishery products, the U.S. shellfish sanitation system is not equivalent to that of the EU’s. The EU and the U.S. are currently negotiating a veterinary equivalency agreement on shellfish. In the meantime, the EU still has a ban in place (since July 1, 2010), that prohibits the import of U.S. bivalve mollusks, in whatever form, into EU territory. This ban does not apply to wild roe-off scallops.

Since June 2009, the only U.S. competent authority for issuing sanitary certificates for fishery and aquaculture products is the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-NMFS).

In addition to sanitary certificates, all third countries wishing to export fishery products to the EU are requested to provide a catch certificate. This catch certificate certifies that the products in question have been caught legally.

For detailed information on import documentation for seafood, please contact the NOAA Fisheries office at the U.S. Mission to the EU (stephane.vrignaud@trade.gov) or visit the following NOAA dedicated web site: http://www.seafood.nmfs.noaa.gov/export/export_certification/euexport.html

U.S. Export Controls

The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which regulate the export and re-export of some commercial items, including “production” and “development” technology.

The items that BIS regulates are often referred to as “dual use” since they have both commercial and military applications. Further information on export controls is available at: www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/exporter-portal

BIS has developed a list of "red flags", or warning signs, intended to discover possible violations of the EAR. These are posted at: www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/enforcement/oee/compliance/23-compliance-a-training/51-red-flag-indicators

Also, BIS has "Know Your Customer" guidance at: www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/enforcement/oee/compliance?layout=edit&id=47

If there is reason to believe a violation is taking place or has occurred, report it to the Department of Commerce by calling the 24-hour hotline at 1(800) 424-2980, or via the confidential lead page at www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/component/rsform/form/14?task=forms.edit

The EAR does not control all goods, services, and technologies. Other U.S. government agencies regulate more specialized exports. For example, the U.S. Department of State has authority over defense articles and services. A list of other agencies involved in export control can be found on the BIS web.

It is important to note that in August 2009, the President directed a broad-based interagency review of the U.S. export control system, with the goal of strengthening national security and the competitiveness of key U.S. manufacturing and technology sectors by focusing on current threats, as well as adapting to the changing economic and technological landscape. As a result, the Administration launched the Export Control Reform Initiative (ECR Initiative) which is designed to enhance U.S. national security and strengthen the United States’ ability to counter threats such as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

The Administration is implementing the reform in three phases. Phases I and II reconcile various definitions, regulations, and policies for export controls, all the while building toward Phase III, which will create a single control list, single licensing agency, unified information technology system, and enforcement coordination center.

For additional information on ECR see: http://export.gov/ecr/index.asp

BIS provides a variety of training sessions to U.S. exporters throughout the year. These sessions range from one to two day seminars and focus on the basics of exporting as well as more advanced topics. A list of upcoming seminars can be found at: http://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/compliance-a-training/current-seminar-schedule

For further details about the Bureau of Industry and Security and its programs, please visit the BIS website at: www.bis.doc.gov/

A list that consolidates eleven export screening lists of the Departments of Commerce, State and the Treasury into a single search as an aid to industry in conducting electronic screens of potential parties to regulated transactions is available here: http://developer.trade.gov/consolidated-screening-list.html.

Temporary Entry

For temporary entry it is usually advisable to purchase an ATA Carnet, which allows for the temporary, duty-free entry of goods into over 50 countries, and is issued by the United States Council for International Business by appointment of the U.S. Customs Service: www.uscib.org.

Labeling and Marking Requirements

The European Union does not generally legislate packaging and labeling requirements, but does so for what it sees as specific high-risk products. In the absence of any EU-wide rules, the exporter has to consult national regulations or inquire about voluntary agreements among forwarders that affect packaging and labeling of containers, outside packaging, etc. Importers or freight forwarders should be able to advise U.S. exporters on shipping documents and outer packaging/labeling. European Union customs legislation only regulates administrative procedures, such as type of certificate and the mention of rule of origin on the customs forms and shipping documents.

Product-specific packaging and labeling requirements applicable throughout the EU apply to food, medicines, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and other items EU authorities regard as high-risk. The stated purpose of harmonizing such legislation throughout the EU is to minimize the risk for consumers (the end user).

The CE mark is mandatory in the EU countries for any electrical apparatus and often more than one CE mark law may apply.


Since its inception ten years ago, many companies have recognized the benefits of adopting the EU Eco-Label scheme. There are currently 135 companies licensed under the regime, and it has been awarded to 21 product groups. The products range from paints, detergents, and refrigerators to tourist accommodation. The number is growing and it is the only voluntary scheme that covers products moving across borders within the EU. It sets ecological criteria for a range of products and services in a transparent way so that the consumer can make a more informed choice in order to support sustainable consumption patterns. The EU Eco-Label program takes the lifecycle (from cradle to grave) of a product into account, e.g., the materials, health implications, and waste factors that may have an impact on the environment.

The “Blue Angel” is a voluntary environmental labeling program created in 1978. It is the oldest environment-related label in the world. The mark is awarded to products and services, which are beneficial to the environment. High standards of occupational health and safety, ergonomics, economical use of raw materials, service life and disposal are also factors covered under this “seal of approval.”

According to the German Ministry for Environmental Affairs, the Blue Angel offers companies the opportunity to document their environmental competence in a simple and inexpensive way, thereby enhancing their market image. About 3,700 products and services have been awarded the label, including, recently, mobile phones and marine transport.

An overview of EU mandatory and voluntary labeling and marking requirements has been compiled in a market research report that is available at: http://buyusainfo.net/docs/x_366090.pdf

The subject has been also been covered in the section about standards (see below).

Prohibited and Restricted Imports

The TARIC is designed to show various rules applying to specific products being imported into the customs territory of the EU or, in some cases, when exported from it. To determine if a product is prohibited or subject to restriction, check the TARIC for the following codes:

CITES Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species
PROHI Import Suspension
RSTR Import Restriction

For information on how to access the TARIC, see the Import Requirements and Documentation Section above.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/

Agricultural Imports

General Veterinary Requirements: In April 1997, the U.S. and the EU reached an equivalency agreement on an overall framework for recognizing each other’s veterinary inspection systems. The veterinary equivalency agreement covers more than USD 1.5 billion in U.S. animal product exports to the EU and an equal value of EU exports to the United States. The agreement preserved most pre-existing trade in products, such as pet food, dairy, and egg products. All beef and pork exported to Germany for human consumption must come from slaughterhouses, cutting plants, and cold stores approved for export to the EU. Since 1989, the EU has prohibited imports of beef from cattle treated with growth hormones. Soon after this ban went into effect, an agreement was reached between the United States and the EU that allows American producers of beef from animals not treated with hormones to export to the EU under certain conditions.
Beef: The EU beef market is largely insulated from the world market by high import duties. Import opportunities do exist, however, for selected products that are covered by fixed, relatively low tariffs for special quota. Most notably, the EU grants market access through a quota for annual imports of up to 11,500 MT of high-quality beef (HQB) from the United States and Canada, which is known as the Hilton quota. Beef entering the EU under the Hilton tariff-rate quota are subject to a 20 percent duty.  In addition, starting in 2009, an autonomous tariff quota for HQB at zero percent duty was established for up to 20,000 MT per July/June marketing year. The basis for this HQB quota is a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the United States and the European Union.  While this HQB quota is ergo omnes, with six countries currently qualified to participate, the quota was primarily installed for the U.S. HQB to enter the EU market. In accordance with the provisions of the MOU, the zero-duty HQB quota moved to Phase II on August 1, 2012, with the annual quota amount increased from 20, 000 MT to 48,200 MT. In the summer of 2013, Phase II was extended by two years and needs another decision by the end of July 2015.

Pork: Selected market opportunities exist for imports of pork. Market access within the EU has improved through the creation of a tariff-rate quota (TRQ) totaling 67,869 MT. The TRQ includes a 40,265 MT allocation for tenderloins, boneless loins and boneless hams.  In addition, a 4,722 MT TRQ is reserved for boneless loins and boneless hams from the United States.

Poultry: Unfortunately, U.S. and EU negotiators have not been able to reach agreement on a number of important points during the veterinary equivalency negotiations, particularly in the poultry sector. The most contentious issue is the use of pathogen reduction treatments (PRT) in U.S. poultry processing. Most forms of PRT are prohibited in the EU. The EU’s ban on PRTs effectively blocks U.S. poultry exports to the EU, which were estimated at USD 50 million in 1996. The US-specific quota of 21,345 MT, which was agreed in compensation for the accession of 12 new member states in 2004 and 2007, is also going unused because of this ban.

Dairy Products: The veterinary agreement allows for U.S. dairy products export to Germany and the EU from approved establishments under a fixed tariff.

Pet food: In the EU, pet food is not regulated by one specific piece of legislation. The EU’s feed marketing legislation covers food for companion animals as well as food for all other animals. Pet food is often also subject to the EU’s veterinary legislation which has different product coverage than the feed marketing legislation. The veterinary legislation covers products of animal origin and hay/straw as these present a risk for spreading animal diseases. The EU’s approach in dealing with these risks consists of a system of mandatory consignment notification and inspection at port of entry as well as product establishment approval and export certification in the country of origin. Specific certification rules have been developed for various product groups, including “animal by-products.” The EU’s animal by-product legislation contains several certificates required for successfully shipping pet food with animal origin ingredients. All exports of U.S. pet food to the European Union must comply with EU requirements which include rules on labeling, hygiene, animal health, certification and the use of additives. U.S. pet food exporters must verify the full set of import requirements with their EU customers. Final import approval is subject to the importing country’s rules as interpreted by border officials at the time of product entry. (Please see the following link for more information: “Exporting Pet Food to the EU”)

Plant Health: As part of the Single Market exercise, plant health regulations in the 28 European Union Member States have been harmonized. Harmonized maximum residue levels are regulated in regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council and went into effect in September 2008. The EU has been successful in reducing the number of phytosanitary restrictions and new marketing opportunities have been created for U.S. horticultural exports. Phytosanitary certificates are required for many imported fresh products.  With respect to the use of solid wooden packing materials (SWPM), it is important to note that the EU requires that all SWPM be either heat treated or fumigated since July 1, 2009.  In addition to these treatment requirements, the material has to be free of bark.  EU scientists fear that improperly treated SWPM is at risk for re-infestation. International plant protection standards as agreed upon by the United States do not require the absence of bark. Exporters should carefully follow the status of EU import requirements to avoid problems at the EU port of entry.

Horticultural Products: Germany is an important market for United States horticultural products. Principal products include almonds, walnuts, pistachios, prunes, raisins, cranberries, citrus, and pears. Horticultural products entering Germany face a number of import restrictions. In addition to considerable tariffs that vary by product, imports of selected fresh produce (tomatoes, cucumber, artichokes, zucchini, squash, citrus, table grapes, apples, pears, apricots, sweet cherries, peaches, nectarines and plums) are subject to seasonal duties (entry price system). Under such a system, imports that have a price at or above the respective entry price are assessed only the appropriate ad valorem duty. Imports, which have a price below, but within a certain range of the entry price are assessed the ad valorem duty plus a specific duty that is the difference between the import price and the entry price. “Within a certain range” generally means within eight percent of the entry price. Imports having a price more than 8% below the entry price are assessed the ad valorem duty plus a very large specific duty (known as the tariff equivalent) which generally takes the cost of the product (import price plus duties) far above the entry price.

Organic Products: The US-EU Organic Equivalence Arrangement took effect on June 1, 2012. The U.S. and EU have recognized each other’s organic production rules and control systems as equivalent under their respective rules. Organic products certified to the USDA organic standards may be sold and labeled as organic in the EU. Both the USDA organic seal and the EU organic logo may be used on products traded under this Arrangement. When using the EU organic logo, exporters must meet all the EU labeling requirements.

Consumer-Ready Products: Imports of consumer-ready food products into Germany face many market access restrictions and very strict food laws. In addition to bound import duties, the EU has established a complex system of border protection measures for food products. Depending on the world market situation for basic agricultural commodities, such as dairy products, sugar and cereals, the EU mechanism of flexible tariffs may require variable import duties to protect European consumer-ready food products from imports made with lower-price inputs. Therefore, at many times processed products entering the EU are subject to additional import charges based on the percentage of sugar, milk fat, milk protein, and starch contained in the product. These additional import charges have made many imported processed food products non-competitive in the EU market. Reports on the German retail and gastronomy sectors are available under “attaché reports” at: http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Pages/Default.aspx

U.S. Agricultural Commodity Associations Active in Germany

A number of U.S. agricultural commodity and other trade associations conduct market development programs in Germany. In some cases, these associations maintain field offices in Germany, while others may have a trade representative or public relations company representing their interests. Others may cover Germany from elsewhere in Europe or from offices in the United States. The USDA-operated Market Access Program (MAP) and Foreign Market Development program (FMD) provide a portion of the funding for the market development programs of these associations. For further information about the MAP and FMD program or to know more about which associations are active in Germany, please contact the Office of Agricultural Affairs at the U.S. Embassy in Berlin (http://germany.usembassy.gov/fas/).

Customs Regulations and Contact Information

The following provides information on the major regulatory efforts of the EC Taxation and Customs Union Directorate:

Electronic Customs Initiative – This initiative deals with EU Customs modernization developments to improve and facilitate trade in the EU member states. The electronic customs initiative is based on the following three pieces of legislation:

  • The Security and Safety Amendment to the Customs Code, which provides for full computerization of all procedures related to security and safety;
  • The Decision on the paperless environment for customs and trade (Electronic Customs Decision) which sets the basic framework and major deadlines for the electronic customs projects;
  • The Modernized Community Customs Code (recast as Union Customs Code) which provides for the completion of the computerization of customs.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/policy_issues/electronic_customs_initiative/

Homepage of Customs and Taxation Union Directorate (TAXUD) Website

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/index_en.htm

Customs Valuation – Most customs duties and value added tax (VAT) are expressed as a percentage of the value of goods being declared for importation. Thus, it is necessary to dispose of a standard set of rules for establishing the goods' value, which will then serve for calculating the customs duty.

Given the magnitude of EU imports every year, it is important that the value of such commerce is accurately measured for the purposes of:

  • economic and commercial policy analysis;
  • application of commercial policy measures;
  • proper collection of import duties and taxes; and
  • import and export statistics.

These objectives are met using a single instrument - the rules on customs value.
The EU applies an internationally accepted concept of ‘customs value’.

The value of imported goods is one of the three 'elements of taxation' which, provides the basis for assessment of the customs debt, which is the technical term for the amount of duty that has to be paid, the other ones being the origin of the goods and the customs tariff.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/declared_goods/index_en.htm



Products tested and certified in the United States to American standards are likely to have to be retested and re-certified to EU requirements as a result of the EU’s different approach to the protection of the health and safety of consumers and the environment. Where products are not regulated by specific EU technical legislation, they are always subject to the EU’s General Product Safety Directive as well as to possible additional national requirements.

European Union legislation and standards created under the New Approach are harmonized across the member states and European Economic Area countries to allow for the free flow of goods. A feature of the New Approach is CE marking. For a list of new approach legislation, go to: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newapproach/nando/index.cfm?fuseaction=directive.main.

The concept of new approach legislation is likely to disappear as the New Legislative Framework (NLF), which entered into force in January 2010, was put in place to serve as a blueprint for existing and future CE marking legislation. Since 2010/2011 existing legislation has been reviewed to bring them in line with the NLF concepts.

While harmonization of EU legislation can facilitate access to the EU Single Market, manufacturers should be aware that regulations (mandatory) and technical standards (voluntary) might also function as barriers to trade if U.S. standards are different from those of the European Union.

Agricultural Standards

The establishment of harmonized EU rules and standards in the food sector has been ongoing for several decades, but it took until January 2002 for the publication of a general food law establishing the general principles of EU food law. This Regulation introduced mandatory traceability throughout the feed and food chain as of Jan 1, 2005. For specific information on agricultural standards, please refer to the Foreign Agricultural Service’s website at: www.usda-eu.org

There are also export guides to import regulations and standards available on the Foreign Agricultural Service’s website: www.usda-eu.org/trade-with-the-eu/eu-import-rules/certification/fairs-export-certificate-report/

Standards Organizations

EU standards setting is a process based on consensus initiated by industry or mandated by the European Commission and carried out by independent standards bodies, acting at the national, European or international level. There is strong encouragement for non-governmental organizations, such as environmental and consumer groups, to actively participate in European standardization.

Many standards in the EU are adopted from international standards bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO). The drafting of specific EU standards is handled by three European standards organizations:

1. CENELEC, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (www.cenelec.eu/)

2. ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (www.etsi.org/)

3. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, handling all other standards

Standards are created or modified by experts in Technical Committees or Working Groups. The members of CEN and CENELEC are the national standards bodies of the member states, which have "mirror committees" that monitor and participate in ongoing European standardization. CEN and CENELEC standards are sold by the individual member states standards bodies. ETSI is different in that it allows direct participation in its technical committees from non-EU companies that have interests in Europe and gives away some of its individual standards at no charge on its website. In addition to the three standards developing organizations, the European Commission plays an important role in standardization through its funding of the participation in the standardization process of small- and medium-sized companies and non-governmental organizations, such as environmental and consumer groups. The Commission also provides money to the standards bodies when it mandates standards development to the European Standards Organization for harmonized standards that will be linked to EU technical legislation. Mandates – or requests for standards - can be checked on line at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/european-standards/standardisation-requests/index_en.htm

Given the EU’s vigorous promotion of its regulatory and standards system as well as its generous funding for its development, the EU’s standards regime is wide and deep - extending well beyond the EU’s political borders to include affiliate members (countries which are hopeful of becoming full members in the future) such as Albania, Belarus, Israel, and Morocco among others. Another category, called "partner standardization body" includes the standards organization of Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan and Australia, which are not likely to become a CEN member or affiliate for political and geographical reasons.

To know what CEN and CENELEC have in the pipeline for future standardization, it is best to visit their websites. Other than their respective annual work plans, CEN’s "what we do" page provides an overview of standards activities by subject. Both CEN and CENELEC offer the possibility to search their respective database. ETSI’s portal (http://portal.etsi.org/Portal_Common/home.asp) leads to ongoing activities.

The European Standardization system and strategy was reviewed in 2011 and 2012. The new standards regulation 1025, adopted in November 2012, clarifies the relationship between regulations and standards and confirms the role of the three European standards bodies in developing EN harmonized standards. The emphasis is also on referencing international standards where possible. For information, communication and technology (ICT) products, the importance of interoperability standards has been recognized. Through a newly established mechanism, a “Platform Committee” reporting to the European Commission will decide which deliverables from fora and consortia might be acceptable for public procurement specifications. The European standards bodies have been encouraged to improve efficiency in terms of delivery and to look for ways to include more societal stakeholders in European standardization.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/european-standards/standardisation-policy/index_en.htm


Standards are created or modified by experts in Technical Committees or Working Groups. The members of CEN and CENELEC are the national standards bodies of the Member States, which have "mirror committees" that monitor and participate in ongoing European standardization. The German organization that compiles standards is the Deutscher Industrie Normenausschuss - DIN (German Standards Institute, http://www.din.de/ ).The DIN also compiles the standards that lay down the requirements for a "GS" mark. Since 1975, DIN has been recognized by the German government as the national standards body and represents Germany’s interests at the international and EU levels. DIN offers a forum in which interested parties meet in order to discuss and define their specific standardization requirements and to record the results as German Standards. In DIN, standard work is carried out by some 26,000 external experts, serving as voluntary delegates in more than 4,000 committees. Draft standards are published for public comment, and all comments are reviewed before final publication of the standard. Published standards are reviewed for continuing relevance at least every five years. According to DIN, standards are designed to promote rationalization, quality assurance, safety, and environmental protection, as well as improving communication between industry, technology, science, government, and the public domain. The input of external experts into standardization is organized through standards committees and working groups. Each standards committee is responsible for a distinct area of activity and coordinates the corresponding standardization work at the EU and international levels. As a rule, the standards committee in DIN includes a number of technical sub-committees. There are currently 76 standards committees that maintain their own websites. Basic details of their area of activity and a list of the standards are published in English. Links to these committees are available on the DIN website.

NIST Notify U.S. Service
Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are required under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) to report to the WTO all proposed technical regulations that could affect trade with other Member countries.

Notify U.S. is a free, web-based e-mail subscription service that offers an opportunity to review and comment on proposed foreign technical regulations that can affect your access to international markets. Register online at Internet URL: http://www.nist.gov/notifyus/

Conformity Assessment

Conformity Assessment is a mandatory step for the manufacturer in the process of complying with specific EU legislation. The purpose of conformity assessment is to ensure consistency of compliance during all stages, from design to production, to facilitate acceptance of the final product. EU product legislation gives manufacturers some choice regarding conformity assessment, depending on the level of risk involved in the use of their product. These range from self-certification, type examination and production quality control system, to full quality assurance system. Conformity assessment bodies in individual member states are listed in NANDO, the European Commission’s website.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newapproach/nando/

To promote market acceptance of the final product, there are a number of voluntary conformity assessment programs. CEN’s certification system is known as the Keymark. Neither CENELEC nor ETSI offer conformity assessment services.

Product Certification

To sell products in the EU market of 28 member states as well as in Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland, U.S. exporters are required to apply CE marking whenever their product is covered by specific product legislation. CE marking product legislation offers manufacturers a number of choices and requires decisions to determine which safety/health concerns need to be addressed, which conformity assessment module is best suited to the manufacturing process, and whether or not to use EU-wide harmonized standards. There is no easy way for U.S. exporters to understand and go through the process of CE marking, but hopefully this section provides some background and clarification.

Products manufactured to standards adopted by CEN, CENELEC or ETSI, and referenced in the Official Journal as harmonized standards, are presumed to conform to the requirements of EU Directives. The manufacturer then applies the CE marking and issues a declaration of conformity. With these, the product will be allowed to circulate freely within the EU. A manufacturer can choose not to use the harmonized EU standards, but then must demonstrate that the product meets the essential safety and performance requirements. Trade barriers occur when design, rather than performance, standards are developed by the relevant European standardization organization, and when U.S. companies do not have access to the standardization process through a European presence.

The CE marking addresses itself primarily to the national control authorities of the member states, and its use simplifies the task of essential market surveillance of regulated products. As market surveillance was found lacking, the EU adopted the New Legislative Framework, which went into force in 2010. As mentioned before, this framework is like a blueprint for all CE marking legislation, harmonizing definitions, responsibilities, European accreditation and market surveillance.

The CE marking is not intended to include detailed technical information on the product, but there must be enough information to enable the inspector to trace the product back to the manufacturer or the local contact established in the EU. This detailed information should not appear next to the CE marking, but rather on the declaration of conformity (which the manufacturer or authorized agent must be able to provide at any time, together with the product's technical file), or the documents accompanying the product.


Independent test and certification laboratories, known as notified bodies, have been officially accredited by competent national authorities to test and certify to EU requirements.

"European Accreditation" (www.european-accreditation.org) is an organization representing nationally recognized accreditation bodies. Membership is open to nationally recognized accreditation bodies in countries in the European geographical area that can demonstrate that they operate an accreditation system compatible to appropriate EN and ISO/IEC standards.


The German Accreditation Council (DAR) is a working group established in 1991 by ministries of the German Federal Government, ministries of the German federal states, and by representatives of the German industry.

The DAR coordinates the activities in the field of accreditation and recognition of laboratories, certification, and inspection bodies as far as they are represented in the DAR; it represents German interests in national, European and international organizations dealing with general issues of accreditation and recognition, including voluntary and mandatory (KOGB) areas. The DAR itself does not carry out any accreditations or recognitions.

All accreditation bodies represented in the DAR are operating on the basis of the EN 45000/EN ISO/IEC 17000 standard series and the DAR resolutions. With permission of the DAR, they may therefore use DAR certificates for accreditation.

Publication of Technical Regulations

The Official Journal is the official publication of the European Union. It is published daily on the internet and consists of two series covering adopted legislation as well as case law, studies by committees, and more (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOIndex.do?ihmlang=en). It lists the standards reference numbers linked to legislation (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/european-standards/harmonised-standards/index_en.htm ).

National technical regulations are published on the Commission’s website http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/ to allow other countries and interested parties to comment.

NIST Notify U.S. Service

Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are required under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) to report to the WTO all proposed technical regulations that could affect trade with other Member countries. Notify U.S. is a free, web-based e-mail subscription service that offers an opportunity to review and comment on proposed foreign technical regulations that can affect your access to international markets. Register online at: www.nist.gov/notifyus


Technical regulations are published by the publishing house of DIN, Beuth Verlag: www.beuth.de

Labeling and Marking

Manufacturers should be mindful that, in addition to the EU’s mandatory and voluntary schemes, national voluntary labeling schemes might still apply. These schemes may be highly appreciated by consumers, and thus, become unavoidable for marketing purposes.

Manufacturers are advised to take note that all labels require metric units although dual labeling is also acceptable. The use of language on labels has been the subject of a Commission Communication, which encourages multilingual information, while preserving the right of member states to require the use of the language of the country of consumption.

The EU has mandated that certain products be sold in standardized quantities. Council Directive 2007/45/EC harmonizes packaging of wine and spirits throughout the EU. Existing national sizes will be abolished with a few exceptions for domestic producers.

Key Link: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/legal-metrology-and-prepack/prepacked-products/index_en.htm

The Eco-label

The EU eco-label is a voluntary label which U.S. exporters can display on products that meet high standards of environmental awareness. The eco-label is intended to be a marketing tool to encourage consumers to purchase environmentally-friendly products. The criteria for displaying the eco-label are strict, covering the entire lifespan of the product from its manufacture, use, and disposal. These criteria are reviewed every three to five years to take into account advances in manufacturing procedures. There are currently 13 different product groups, and more than 17000 licenses have been awarded.

Applications to display the eco-label should be directed to the competent body of the member state in which the product is sold. The application fee will be somewhere between €275 and €1600 depending on the tests required to verify if the product is eligible, and an annual fee for the use of the logo (typically between USD 480 to USD 2000), with a 20% reduction for companies registered under the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) or certified under the international standard ISO 14001. Discounts are available for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

Key Links: Eco-label Home Page


U.S. Mission to the EU
Marianne Drain, Standards Attaché and Louis Fredricks, Commercial Assistant
Tel: 32.2.811.5004194
and louis.fredricks@trade.gov

National Institute of Standards & Technology
Dr. George W. Arnold
Standards Coordination Office
100 Bureau Dr.
Mail Stop 2100
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
Tel: (301) 975-5627
Website: http://www.nist.gov/director/sco/index.cfm

CEN – European Committee for Standardization
Avenue Marnix 17
B – 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.550.08.11
Fax: 32.2.550.08.19
Website: http://www.cen.eu

CENELEC – European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Avenue Marnix 17
B – 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.519.68.71
Fax: 32.2.519.69.19
Website: http://www.cenelec.eu

ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Route des Lucioles 650
F – 06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France
Website: http://www.etsi.org
SBS – Small Business Standards
4, Rue Jacques de Lalaing
B-1040 Brussels
Tel: +
Fax : +32-2/230.78.61
Website: http://sbs-sme.eu/

ANEC - European Association for the Co-ordination of Consumer Representation in Standardization
Avenue de Tervuren 32, Box 27
B – 1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.743.24.70
Fax: 32.2.706.54.30
Website: http:/www.anec.org

ECOS – European Environmental Citizens Organization for Standardization
Rue d’Edimbourg 26
B – 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.894.46.68
Fax: 32.2.894.46.10
Website: http://www.ecostandard.org

EOTA – European Organization for Technical Assessment (for construction products)
Avenue des Arts 40
B – 1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.502.69.00
Fax: 32.2.502.38.14
Website: http://www.eota.eu/

Trade Agreements

For a list of trade agreements with the EU and its member states, as well as concise explanations, please see http://tcc.export.gov/Trade_Agreements/index.asp

Web Resources

EU websites:

Online customs tariff database (TARIC):

The Modernized Community Customs Code MCCC):

ECHA: http://echa.europa.eu

Taxation and Customs Union: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/index_en.htm

Security and Safety Amendment to the Customs Code - Regulation (EC) 648/2005:

Electronic Customs Initiative: Decision N° 70/2008/EC

Modernized Community Customs Code Regulation (EC) 450/2008):

Legislation related to the Electronic Customs Initiative:

Export Help Desk

International Level:

What is Customs Valuation?:

Customs and Security: Two communications and a proposal for amending the Community Customs Code:

Establishing the Community Customs Code: Regulation (EC) n° 648/2005 of 13 April 2005

Pre Arrival/Pre Departure Declarations:

AEO: Authorized Economic Operator:

Contact Information at National Customs Authorities:

New Approach Legislation:

Cenelec, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization:

ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute:

CEN, European Committee for Standardization, handling all other standards:

Standardisation – Mandates:

ETSI – Portal – E-Standardisation :

CEN – Sector:

CEN - Standard Search:

Nando (New Approach Notified and Designated Organizations) Information System:

Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs):

European Co-operation for Accreditation:

Eur-Lex – Access to European Union Law:

Standards Reference Numbers linked to Legislation:

What’s New:

National technical Regulations:

NIST - Notify U.S.:

Metrology, Pre-Packaging – Pack Size:

European Union Eco-label Homepage:

U.S. websites:
National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers:

Agricultural Trade Barriers:

Trade Compliance Center:

U.S. Mission to the European Union:

The New EU Battery Directive:

The Latest on REACH:

WEEE and RoHS in the EU:

Overview of EU Certificates (FAS):

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition:

EU Marking, Labeling and Packaging – An Overview

The European Union Eco-Label:

Trade Agreements:


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